Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma)
Endocrine Surgery Encyclopedia
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a condition caused by abnormal production of the hormone
gastrin. A small tumor (gastinoma) in the pancreas or small intestine produces the
high levels of gastrin in the blood.
Alternative Names: Z-E syndrome; Gastrinoma
Causes, incidence, and risk factors:
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is caused by tumors usually found in the head of the pancreas
and the upper small bowel. These tumors produce the hormone gastrin and are called
gastrinomas. High levels of gastrin cause overproduction of stomach acid.
High stomach acid levels lead to multiple ulcers in the stomach and small bowel.
Patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome may experience abdominal pain and diarrhea.
The diagnosis is also suspected in patients without symptoms who have severe ulceration
of the stomach and small bowel.
Gastrinomas occur as single tumors or as small, multiple tumors. About one-half
to two-thirds of single gastrinomas are malignant tumors that commonly spread to
the liver and nearby lymph nodes. Nearly 25% of patients with gastrinomas have multiple
tumors as part of a condition called multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I).
MEN I patients often have tumors of the pituitary gland (brain) and parathyroid (neck)
glands in addition to tumors of the pancreas.
- Vomiting blood (occasional)
Signs and tests:
- The gastrin level is increased.
- A secretin stimulation test is positive.
- A calcium infusion test is positive.
- An abdominal CT scan shows a tumor (or tumors) in the pancreas or early small
- An octreotide scan shows a tumor in the pancreas or early small bowel.
- Exploratory surgery shows the location of a tumor.
- An endoscopic ultrasound shows a tumor in the pancreas or early small bowel.
A class of acid-suppressing medications called proton pump inhibitors (for example,
omeprazole, lansoprazole) is now the first choice of treatment of Zollinger-Ellison
syndrome. These drugs dramatically reduce acid production by the stomach, and promote
healing of ulcers in the stomach and small bowel. They also provide relief of abdominal
pain and diarrhea.
Surgical removal of a single gastrinoma may be attempted if there is no evidence
that it has spread to other organs (such as lymph nodes or the liver). Surgery on
the stomach (gastrectomy) to control acid production is rarely necessary today.
Early diagnosis and surgical removal of the tumor is associated with a cure rate
of only 20% to 25%. However, gastrinomas grow slowly, and patients may live for many
years after the tumor is discovered. Acid-suppressing medications are very effective
at controlling the symptoms of acid overproduction.
- Spread of the tumor to other organs (most often liver and lymph nodes)
- Failure to locate the tumor during surgery
- Intestinal bleeding or perforation (hole) from ulcers in the stomach or duodenum
- Severe diarrhea and weight loss
Calling your health care provider:
Call your provider if severe, persistent abdominal pain occurs, especially if it
occurs with diarrhea.
Review Date: 5/4/2006
Reviewed By: Jenifer K. Lehrer, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Frankford-Torresdale
Hospital, Jefferson Health System, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare
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